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Retardateur de flammes : Danger ?

Rédigé par Ines 48 commentaires

Hello tout le monde !

Depuis quelque temps déjà des études démontrent les dangers des parabènes, du silicone, des conservateurs et personne n’est passé à côté de toutes ses controverse. Pourtant on entend moins parler des retardateurs de flammes qui seraient tout aussi dangereux.
Aujourd’hui, je vais donc vous en parler et expliquer les potentiels dangers de ces produits.

Les retardateurs de flammes, c’est quoi ?
Ce sont des additifs qui tendent à réduire les risques d’incendies des produits issus de polymères : fibres végétales ou animales, plastiques, caoutchoucs…
Par ailleurs, depuis leur utilisation on constate une diminution des dégâts dus aux incendies de domiciles.
On les retrouve sous les noms de PCB, PBB, HBCD, TBBPA ou autres produits organophosphorés.
Ils fonctionnent différemment selon leur nature :

  • Dégradation endothermique : à température élevée, l’additif « élimine la chaleur » et refroidis le matériau. C’est ce que l’on retrouve dans les fils ou câbles.


  • Protection thermique : l’additif créer une barrière d’isolation thermique entre la flamme et le matériau et ralentit ainsi le transfert de chaleur.



Ou les trouve-t-on ?
On trouve les retardateurs de flammes un peu partout autour de nous. En effets, ils se trouvent dans nos meubles (rembourrage ou mousse), les textiles (vêtements, tapis, cuir), l’électronique (télé, câble), l’isolation, la peinture…
En France seuls les établissements publics tels que les cinémas ou les théâtres ont l’obligation de rajouter ses additifs.

Quels sont les dangers ?
Leurs utilisations a augmenté ces dernières années ce qui créer une accumulation dans l’environnement et dans l’organisme notamment les graisses par inhalation ou ingestion de poussières. Des traces de ces retardateurs  ont été retrouvées dans de la viande et du poisson !
Certaines études déclarent que les PBDE seraient des perturbateurs endocriniens. En effet, ils s’attaqueraient au foie et à la thyroïde causant un retard de développement, de la maturation sexuelle, du système nerveux des fœtus et une diminution de la fécondité. Ils sont donc interdits dans l’union européenne depuis 2008 mais les HBCDD restent autorisé.
Il faut tout de même nuancer le danger car les effets sur l’Homme ne sont pas encore clairement démontré, les études restent en cours.

Comment se protéger ?
Peu d’alternatives existent pour le moment. Le danger étant l’accumulation dans l’air il est important d’aérer sa maison, sa voiture et son bureau tous les jours. De plus, pour les femmes enceintes, il n’est pas conseiller de refaire la déco de sa maison et de repeindre les murs.

J’espère vous en avoir appris un peu plus sur les retardateurs de flamme et leur danger.  Il n’est pas nécessaire de tomber dans une panique car l’on est entouré de ses produits : aérer sa maison permet déjà de se protéger. Si vous avez des questions n’hésitez pas je pourrai peut être vous répondre !

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